Most effective template for language learning

I’m trying to figure out what the most effective or best format would be for cards specifically for language learning. This is for an upper intermediate learner.

I used to just do native language word on one side, target language other side. But this has many limitations. You can’t easily test both native->target and target->native with it, because many different words in native map to the same word in target, and vice versa.

There’s cloze, but I often find that as soon as i see a sentence I just remember the word instantly even without “understanding”. Like the sentences are unique enough that a couple words from the beginning is enough to just recall the answer without having to think about it.

Then there’s audio / picture capabilities, and how to integrate those into cards.

Another option still is to not have native language at all, just target word one side, definition of target word in target language other side.

I guess this is a more high level / abstract question about what techniques work the best for people, and if they have a y deck templates they can share.

This is a big topic. Everyone is different. For me is Cloze cards with a variation of smaller or large sections as test items *). Sometimes parts, sometimes whole sentences.

*) I’m more patten-centric, like jazz musicians, if I know a pattern really well I could improvise with the target language.

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